How do we deliver the content to the end users? Depends on the audience, we might need to deliver the same content in different formats such as html, PDF, printer, voice prompts, braille, etc.

The answer is that we should use the design principle – separation of content and presentation.

If you really think about this, this design principle is applied everywhere we see. Web developers use CSS to create different presentations of the content for years. In addition, the same content of fancy-looking web pages (presentation 1) could be browsed in different devices (mobile-first responsive design, presentation 2), delivered in different languages to users in different regions (presentation 3), be printed to papers (presentation 4), fed into text-to-speech engine to generate high-quality voices for visually-impaired users (presentation 5), etc..

The key is that this design principle is NOT tied to any particular technology, can be applied to almost anywhere, and must be applied wisely.


  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_presentation_and_content
  2. The separation of structure, presentation and behavior is dead